elk中Beats数据采集

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Beats是elastic公司的一款轻量级数据采集产品,它包含了几个子产品:

  • packetbeat(用于监控网络流量)、
  • filebeat(用于监听日志数据,可以替代logstash-input-file)、
  • topbeat(用于搜集进程的信息、负载、内存、磁盘等数据)、
  • winlogbeat(用于搜集windows事件日志)

另外社区还提供了dockerbeat等工具。由于他们都是基于libbeat写出来的,因此配置上基本相同,只是input输入的地方各有差异。

本文按照如下的内容依次进行介绍:

  • 背景知识:关于Powershell的使用
  • packetbeat的下载、部署、使用、结果样例
  • filebeat的下载、部署、使用、样例
  • topbeat的样例
  • winlogbeat的样例

关于Powershell

如果你是想在linux下使用,那么可以跳过本节。

elastic中的Beats在windows环境中基本都是使用Powershell的脚本,因此用户必须对Powershell有一定的了解。Powershell可以理解成windows对命令行的高级封装,加了个壳,从而支持更多高级的用法。在windows7开始,系统就内置了Powershell工具。因此如果你的系统是xp这种比较老的版本,就需要自己安装Powershell了。

启动Powershell

在windows下,有两种方式打开Powershell(要以管理员的身份打开)。

通过图标打开

在windows下开启搜索,输入powershell,右键以管理员身份运行。

通过命令行启动

在系统路径C:\Windows\System32下,以管理员身份启动cmd.exe(右键选择 以管理员身份运行)。

输入命令Powershell,进入Powershell命令窗口。

C:\Windows\system32>Powershell
Windows PowerShell
版权所有 (C) 2009 Microsoft Corporation。保留所有权利。

PS C:\Windows\system32>

开启脚本限制

默认的情况下,系统会禁止运行脚本,返回下面的错误提示:

PS E:\packetbeat> .\install-service-packetbeat.ps1
无法加载文件 E:\packetbeat\install-service-packetbeat.ps1,因为在此系统中禁止执
行脚本。有关详细信息,请参阅 "get-help about_signing"。
所在位置 行:1 字符: 33
+ .\install-service-packetbeat.ps1 <<<<
    + CategoryInfo          : NotSpecified: (:) [], PSSecurityException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : RuntimeException

需要修改该参数执行下面的命令,开启Powershell脚本功能:

PS E:\packetbeat> set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

Packetbeat 网络流量监控

Packetbeat属于beats产品的一部分,专门负责网络数据包分析,可以:

  • 针对特定的网卡监听流量;
  • 可以设置相关的监听对象和端口号,支持dns,http,memcahce,mysql,pgsql,redis,thrift,mongodb等;
  • 可以输出到特定的目的地,如elasticsearch、logstash、file、console等。

下载

https://www.elastic.co/downloads/beats

部署

linux环境

第一步,解压缩

下载.tar.gz的安装包后,解压:

tar -zxvf packetbeat-1.2.3-x86_64.tar.gz

进入解压后的文件夹,里面有3个文件:

--- packetbeat #启动文件
--- packetbeat.template.json #Elasticsearch中的映射配置
--- packetbeat.yml #Packetbeat的配置文件
第二步,修改配置文件

配置文件包括了几大部分:

# 配置网络监听的显卡
interfaces:
    device:any
# 配置协议
protocols:
    http:
        ports:[80,8080,9000]
    redis:
        ports:[6379]
# 配置输出
output:
    elasticsearch:
        hosts:["localhost:9200"]
        inex:"packetbeat"
        template:
            name:"packetbeat"
            path:"packetbeat.template.json"
            overwrite:false
    logstah:
        hosts:["localhost:5044"]
    file:
        path:"/tmp/packetbeat"
        filename:packetbeat
    console:
shipper:
logging:
第三步,运行

正常的运行:

./packetbeat

如果想要后台运行,则可以像下面这样:

nohup ./packetbeat &

默认日志都会输出到nohup.out中。

windows环境

第一步,解压

相比linux,多了两个powershell的脚本。

--- install-service-packetbeat.ps1 # 注册脚本
--- uninstall-service-packetbeat.ps1 # 注销脚本
--- packetbeat.exe #启动文件
--- packetbeat.template.json #Elasticsearch中的映射配置
--- packetbeat.yml #Packetbeat的配置文件
第二步,以管理员身份进入命令行,运行注册脚本

进入指定的目录,运行注册脚本。

 .\install-service-winlogbeat.ps1
第三步,启动服务
Start-Service packetbeat.exe

对接Elasticsearch

Packetbeat配置如下:

  elasticsearch:
    hosts: ["localhost:9200"]
    index: "packetbeat"
    template:
      name: "packetbeat"
      path: "packetbeat.template.json"

对接logstash

Packetbeat配置如下:

logstash:
    # The Logstash hosts
    hosts: ["localhost:5044"]

logstash采用logstash-input-beats接收,配置可以参考如下:

input{
    beats{
        port => 5044
    }
    stdin{}
}
output{
    stdout{
        codec => rubydebug
    }
    file{
        path => "E:\server.log"
    }
}

存储到file

PacketBeat配置:

  file:
    path: "E:/packetbeat"
    filename: packetbeat

默认是按照文件大小轮询。

日志管理

日志可以设置输出的位置,以及级别。跟平常使用的log4j差不多:

logging:
  files:
    path: E:/mybeat
    name: mybeat
    level: debug

Packetbeat监听到的内容

{
    "_index": "packetbeat-2016.08.01",
    "_type": "dns",
    "_id": "AVZELeQzbZnlZq0jh6Vk",
    "_version": 1,
    "_score": 1,
    "_source": {
        "@timestamp": "2016-08-01T03:37:53.106Z",
        "beat": {
            "hostname": "XINGHL",
            "name": "XINGHL"
        },
        "bytes_in": 31,
        "bytes_out": 260,
        "client_ip": "10.4.45.44",
        "client_port": 51599,
        "client_proc": "",
        "client_server": "",
        "count": 1,
        "direction": "out",
        "dns": {
            "additionals": [
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "115.239.210.176",
                    "name": "ns4.a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 281,
                    "type": "A"
                },
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "119.75.222.17",
                    "name": "ns5.a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 281,
                    "type": "A"
                },
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "61.135.165.224",
                    "name": "ns1.a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 281,
                    "type": "A"
                },
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "180.149.133.241",
                    "name": "ns2.a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 281,
                    "type": "A"
                },
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "61.135.162.215",
                    "name": "ns3.a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 281,
                    "type": "A"
                }
            ],
            "additionals_count": 5,
            "answers": [
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "www.a.shifen.com",
                    "name": "sp1.baidu.com",
                    "ttl": 33,
                    "type": "CNAME"
                },
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "61.135.169.125",
                    "name": "www.a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 282,
                    "type": "A"
                },
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "61.135.169.121",
                    "name": "www.a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 282,
                    "type": "A"
                }
            ],
            "answers_count": 3,
            "authorities": [
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "ns5.a.shifen.com",
                    "name": "a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 1182,
                    "type": "NS"
                },
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "ns1.a.shifen.com",
                    "name": "a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 1182,
                    "type": "NS"
                },
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "ns3.a.shifen.com",
                    "name": "a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 1182,
                    "type": "NS"
                },
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "ns2.a.shifen.com",
                    "name": "a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 1182,
                    "type": "NS"
                },
                {
                    "class": "IN",
                    "data": "ns4.a.shifen.com",
                    "name": "a.shifen.com",
                    "ttl": 1182,
                    "type": "NS"
                }
            ],
            "authorities_count": 5,
            "flags": {
                "authoritative": false,
                "recursion_allowed": true,
                "recursion_desired": true,
                "truncated_response": false
            },
            "id": 32509,
            "op_code": "QUERY",
            "question": {
                "class": "IN",
                "name": "sp1.baidu.com",
                "type": "A"
            },
            "response_code": "NOERROR"
        },
        "ip": "210.83.210.155",
        "method": "QUERY",
        "port": 53,
        "proc": "",
        "query": "class IN, type A, sp1.baidu.com",
        "resource": "sp1.baidu.com",
        "responsetime": 1,
        "server": "",
        "status": "OK",
        "transport": "udp",
        "type": "dns"
    }
}

filebeat 日志监听

filebeat是Beats的重要组成部分,它可以作为轻量级的数据采集引擎,替代之前的logstash-forward。

下载

https://www.elastic.co/downloads/beats

说明

filebeat.yml为filebeat的配置文件,包括下面几个部分:

-- filebeat # 配置filebeat监听的对象,即文件路径或者目录的路径
-- output # 输出配置,支持es,logstash,file,console等
-- shipper
-- logging # 配置日志

filebeat.template.json 为默认提供的elasticsearch映射模板
filebeat为主要的执行程序

运行

linux环境

运行命令解压安装包——filebeat.tar.gz

tar -zxvf filebeat.tar.gz

编辑filebeat.yml

vim filebeat.yml

启动filebeat

nohup ./filebeat &

windows环境

以管理员身份运行cmd, 并执行Powershell命令,进入PS模式.启动filebeat注册脚本:

C:\Windows\system32>Powershell
Windows PowerShell
版权所有 (C) 2009 Microsoft Corporation。保留所有权利。

PS C:\Windows\system32> e:
PS E:\> cd .\filebeat-1.2.3-windows
PS E:\filebeat-1.2.3-windows> dir


    目录: E:\filebeat-1.2.3-windows


Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
-----         2016/5/18      4:33   10361856 filebeat.exe
-----         2016/5/18      4:33        814 filebeat.template.json
-----         2016/5/18      4:33      17533 filebeat.yml
-----         2016/5/18      4:33        442 install-service-filebeat.ps1
-----         2016/5/18      4:33        184 uninstall-service-filebeat.ps1


PS E:\filebeat-1.2.3-windows> .\install-service-filebeat.ps1

Status   Name               DisplayName
------   ----               -----------
Stopped  filebeat           filebeat

编辑配置文件,filebeat.yml

启动filebeat文件

PS E:\filebeat-1.2.3-windows> Start-Service filebeat

样例

{
    "_index": "filebeat-2016.08.01",
    "_type": "log",
    "_id": "AVZE1AMfbZnlZq0jh6cF",
    "_version": 1,
    "_score": 1,
    "_source": {
        "@timestamp": "2016-08-01T06:39:15.193Z",
        "beat": {
            "hostname": "XINGHL",
            "name": "XINGHL"
        },
        "count": 1,
        "fields": null,
        "input_type": "log",
        "message": "hello filebeat",
        "offset": 22988,
        "source": "e:\logs\test.log",
        "type": "log"
    }
}

topbeat 监听进程资源信息

启动方式与前面几种类似,这里就不过多赘述了。

topbeat – windows版

{
    "_index": "topbeat-windows-2016.08.01",
    "_type": "process",
    "_id": "AVZE7zC6bZnlZq0jh8QD",
    "_version": 1,
    "_score": 1,
    "_source": {
        "@timestamp": "2016-08-01T07:09:01.206Z",
        "beat": {
            "hostname": "XINGHL",
            "name": "XINGHL"
        },
        "count": 1,
        "proc": {
            "cmdline": "%SystemRoot%\system32\csrss.exe ObjectDirectory=\Windows SharedSection=1024,20480,768 Windows=On SubSystemType=Windows ServerDll=basesrv,1 ServerDll=winsrv:UserServerDllInitialization,3 ServerDll=winsrv:ConServerDllInitialization,2 ServerDll=sxssrv,4 ProfileControl=Off MaxRequestThreads=16",
            "cpu": {
                "user": 5538,
                "user_p": 0,
                "system": 7753,
                "total": 13291,
                "start_time": "Jan01"
            },
            "mem": {
                "size": 3391488,
                "rss": 3366912,
                "rss_p": 0,
                "share": 0
            },
            "name": "csrss.exe",
            "pid": 544,
            "ppid": 0,
            "state": "running",
            "username": "NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM"
        },
        "type": "process"
    }
}

topbeat – linux版本

{
    "_index": "topbeat-2016.08.01",
    "_type": "process",
    "_id": "AVZE6Mh4bZnlZq0jh6jT",
    "_version": 1,
    "_score": 1,
    "_source": {
        "@timestamp": "2016-08-01T07:01:09.641Z",
        "beat": {
            "hostname": "10.0.67.101",
            "name": "10.0.67.101"
        },
        "count": 1,
        "proc": {
            "cpu": {
                "user": 0,
                "user_p": 0,
                "system": 0,
                "total": 0,
                "start_time": "Jul06"
            },
            "mem": {
                "size": 0,
                "rss": 0,
                "rss_p": 0,
                "share": 0
            },
            "name": "migration/0",
            "pid": 5,
            "ppid": 2,
            "state": "sleeping",
            "username": "root"
        },
        "type": "process"
    }
}

winlogbeat windows事件监听

启动方式与前面几种类似,这里就不过多赘述了。


{
    "_index": "winlogbeat-2015.11.09",
    "_type": "wineventlog",
    "_id": "AVZE_J7FbZnlZq0jh_sL",
    "_version": 1,
    "_score": 1,
    "_source": {
        "@timestamp": "2015-11-09T00:28:50.953Z",
        "beat": {
            "hostname": "XINGHL",
            "name": "XINGHL"
        },
        "computer_name": "xinghailong",
        "count": 1,
        "event_id": 35,
        "level": "信息",
        "log_name": "System",
        "message": "时间服务现在用时间源 time.neusoft.com,0x9 (ntp.m|0x9|0.0.0.0:123->202.118.6.8:123) 同步系统时间。",
        "record_number": "25479",
        "source_name": "Microsoft-Windows-Time-Service",
        "type": "wineventlog",
        "user": {
            "domain": "NT AUTHORITY",
            "identifier": "S-1-5-19",
            "name": "LOCAL SERVICE",
            "type": "Well Known Group"
        }
    }
}

参考

1 官方文档

2 ELK Beats文档

作者:xingoo
出处:http://www.cnblogs.com/xing901022
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